Turns out that a recent review (AS Oxentenko, JA Murray. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1396-1404) is a succinct summary on celiac disease with questions focused on diagnosis, endoscopy, genetics/HLA typing, at risk groups, management, adherence, non responsive celiac patient, and refractory patients. Most of these topics have been addressed previously on this blog.
However, here are a few pointers:
- “Histologic improvement is slow in adults…Mucosal recovery, defined by a villous:crypt ratio of 3:1, was present in 34% at 2 years and 66% at 5 years, with healing complete in 90% by 9 years.”
- “Mucosal recovery is faster and more complete in children, with 95% recovery in 2 years and 100% recovery long-term in children following a GFD.”
- With nonresponsive celiac disease, “defined as a lack of response to 6 months on a GFD or a recurrence of celiac-related features despite compliance,” the authors recommend reviewing serology and biopsies. Other etiologies to consider include bacterial overgrowth, autoimmune enteropathy, tropical sprue, Crohn’s disease, combined variable immunodeficiency, collagenous sprue, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis.
- For refractory celiac disease with ongoing villous atrophy, this “should prompt immunophenotyping and T-cell rearrangement studies” of duodenal biopsies.
Briefly noted: ET Jensen et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1426-31. The authors examined 88,517 patients who had undergone both esophageal and duodenal biopsies. “Odds of EoE (eosinophilic esophagitis) were 26% higher in patients with celiac disease than in patients without celiac disease” (adjusted odds ratio 1.26).
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