Why Does Enteral Nutrition Work for Crohn’s Disease? Is it due to the Microbiome?

A recent study (K Gerasimidis et al. Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication 3 November 2015; doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.357. Full Text: Extensive Modulation of the Fecal Metagenome in Children With Crohn’s Disease During Exclusive Enteral Nutrition) finds that treatment with Exclusive Enteral Nutrition further reduces microbiome diversity compared to healthy controls. This was an unexpected finding as the authors state: “we would expect EEN treatment to normalize the perceived ‘dysbiotic’ microbiota toward a healthier state.”

Reference from KT Park’s twitter feed. Here’s the abstract:

OBJECTIVES:

Exploring associations between the gut microbiota and colonic inflammation and assessing sequential changes during exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) may offer clues into the microbial origins of Crohn’s disease (CD).

METHODS:

Fecal samples (n=117) were collected from 23 CD and 21 healthy children. From CD children fecal samples were collected before, during EEN, and when patients returned to their habitual diets. Microbiota composition and functional capacity were characterized using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics.

RESULTS:

Microbial diversity was lower in CD than controls before EEN (P=0.006); differences were observed in 36 genera, 141 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 44 oligotypes. During EEN, the microbial diversity of CD children further decreased, and the community structure became even more dissimilar than that of controls. Every 10 days on EEN, 0.6 genus diversity equivalents were lost; 34 genera decreased and one increased during EEN. Fecal calprotectin correlated with 35 OTUs, 14 of which accounted for 78% of its variation. OTUs that correlated positively or negatively with calprotectin decreased during EEN. The microbiota of CD patients had a broader functional capacity than healthy controls, but diversity decreased with EEN. Genes involved in membrane transport, sulfur reduction, and nutrient biosynthesis differed between patients and controls. The abundance of genes involved in biotin (P=0.005) and thiamine biosynthesis decreased (P=0.017), whereas those involved in spermidine/putrescine biosynthesis (P=0.031), or the shikimate pathway (P=0.058), increased during EEN.

CONCLUSIONS:

Disease improvement following treatment with EEN is associated with extensive modulation of the gut microbiome.

My take: We really don’t know why EEN works and we have a lot to learn about a ‘healthy’ microbiome.

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5 thoughts on “Why Does Enteral Nutrition Work for Crohn’s Disease? Is it due to the Microbiome?

    • It is a good question. Some preliminary data suggests that fecal microbiota transplant may be effective in some cases of UC, so perhaps there will be some individuals where changing the microbiome (through diet) could be beneficial. At this point, there is a lot more work needed to figure this out.

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