Infliximab Not Associated with Malignancy

JS Hyams et al. Gastroenterology http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.02.004

Using the DEVELOP registry, a prospective study showed no increased risk of malignancy among 5766 pediatric participants with inflammatory bowel disease.

Link: Full Abstract

Immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric patients is thought to increase risk of malignancy and lymphoproliferative disorders, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We compared unadjusted incidence rates and of malignancy and HLH in pediatric patients with IBD exposed to infliximab compared with patients not exposed to biologics and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

Methods

We collected and analyzed data from 5766 participants in a prospective study of long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with IBD (NCT00606346), from 2007 through 30 June 2016. Patients were 17 years old or younger and had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or IBD unclassified with 24,543.0 patient-years of follow-up. We estimated incidence rates for malignancy and HLH as events/1000 patient-years of follow-up. We calculated age-, sex-, and race-adjusted SIRs, with 95% CIs, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database.

Results

Thirteen of the 15 patients who developed a malignancy and all 5 of the patients who developed HLH had been exposed to thiopurine; 10 patients with malignancy patients had also been exposed to a biologic agent. Unadjusted incidence rates showed no increased risk of malignancy (0.46/1000 patient-years) or HLH (0.0/1000 patient-years) in patients exposed to infliximab as the only biologic vs those unexposed to biologics (malignancy: 1.12/1000 patient-years; HLH: 0.56/1000 patient-years). SIRs did not demonstrate an increased risk of malignancy among patients exposed to infliximab (SIR; 1.69; 95% CI, 0.46–4.32) vs patients not exposed to a biologic agent (SIR, 2.17; 95% CI, 0.59–5.56), even when patients were stratified by thiopurine exposure.

Conclusions

In determination of age-, sex- and race-adjusted SIRs using data from a large clinical trial and the SEER database, we found that infliximab exposure did not associate with increased risk of malignancy or HLH in pediatric patients with IBD. Thiopurine exposure is an important precedent event for the development of malignancy or HLH in pediatric patients with IBD.

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