A recent prospective study (M Markova, O Pivovarova, et al. Gastroenterol 2017; 152: 571-85) showed that among individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes that a diet high in protein (animal or plant) reduced liver fat over a 6 week period.
Among 37 participants, body fat and intrahepatic fat were detected with MRI and spectroscopy, respectively. Protein was increased to 30% of the diet. Fat was reduced to 30% and carbohydrates to 40% of diet composition. .
- With a high animal protein diet, liver fat was reduced by 36%. In the high plant protein diet group, liver fat was reduced by 48%.
- Theses changes were unrelated to change in body weight. However, these changes were correlated with down-regulation of lipolysis and lipogenic indices.
Some of the findings may be limited to older patients as this cohort was older than 60 years of age. In the pediatric population, the dietary factor that has been linked most closely to NAFLD has been fructose, mainly in sugar-sweetened beverages (R Patusco et al. Top Clin Nutr 2017; 32: 27-46 -thanks to Ben Gold for this reference).
My take: This study shows improvement in liver fat with increased protein/reduced dietary fat. While this study indicates that dietary modification is important in treating NAFLD, the optimal dietary intervention (eg. higher protein, lower sugar, lower fat) remains uncertain.
- When Will MRI Obviate the Need for a Liver Biopsy in Pediatric NAFLD?
- Concise Review: Fatty Liver in Pediatrics
- Reaching Consensus on Bariatric Intervention in Children and Adolescents