About gutsandgrowth

I am a pediatric gastroenterologist at GI Care for Kids (previously called CCDHC) in Atlanta, Georgia. The goal of my blog is to share some of my reading in my field more broadly. In addition, I wanted to provide my voice to a wide range of topics that often have inaccurate or incomplete information. Before starting this blog in 2011, I would tear out articles from journals and/or keep notes in a palm pilot. This blog helps provide an updated source of information that is easy to access and search, along with links to useful multimedia sources. I was born and raised in Chattanooga. After graduating from the University of Virginia, I attended Baylor College of Medicine. I completed residency and fellowship training at the University of Cincinnati at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center. I received funding from the National Institutes of Health for molecular biology research of the gastrointestinal tract. I have authored numerous publications/presentations including original research, case reports, review articles, and textbook chapters on various pediatric gastrointestinal problems. Currently, I am the chair of the section of nutrition for the Georgia Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. In addition, I am an adjunct Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine. Other society memberships have included the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Food Allergy Network, the American Gastroenterology Association, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation. As part of a national pediatric GI organization called NASPGHAN (and its affiliated website GIKids) I have helped develop educational materials on a wide-range of gastrointestinal and liver diseases which are used across the country. Also, I have been an invited speaker for national campaigns to improve the evaluation and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, celiac disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some information on these topics has been posted at my work website, www.gicareforkids.com, which has links to multiple other useful resources. I am fortunate to work at GI Care For Kids. Our group has 17 physicians with a wide range of subspecialization, including liver diseases, feeding disorders, eosinophilic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, DiGeorge/22q, celiac disease, and motility disorders. Many of our physicians are recognized nationally for their achievements. For many families, more practical matters include the following: – 14 office/satellite locations – physicians who speak Spanish – cutting edge research – on-site nutritionists – on-site psychology support for abdominal pain and feeding disorders – participation in ImproveCareNow – office endoscopy suite (lower costs and easier scheduling) – office infusion center (lower costs and easier for families) – easy access to nursing advice (each physician has at least one nurse) I am married and have two sons. I like to read, walk/hike, exercise, swim, and play tennis with my free time as well as go to baseball games. I do not have any financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies or other financial relationships to disclose. I have participated in industry-sponsored research studies.

PFAPA Conference Report

A conference report on periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis syndrome (PFAPA): L Harel et al. J Pediatr 2018; 193: 265-74

This report reviews PFAPA along with other fever syndromes.

Table II reviews several published criteria.  Most of these include abrupt onset of fever, duration of symptoms <5 days, presence of constitutional symptoms, exclusion of cyclic neutropenia, presence of  aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, presence of asymptomatic intervals, normal growth.

  • The authors note that ~25% of patients are >5 years of age.
  • They note that it is important to exclude exudative tonsillitis.
  • They suggest NOT testing for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in the absence of clinical suspicion. The pain symptoms with FMF are much more intense and  consistent with a peritonitis.
  • They recommend checking acute phase reactants between attacks to assure normalization
  • Corticosteroids (single dose) have been shown to shorter course.  “The recommended full dose is 2 mg/kg prednisone or 0.3 mg/kg betamethasone.”
  • “It is our practice to conclude the following: 1. Fever recurring the next day [after steroids]–not a PFAPA episode, 2. fever recurring withing 2-4 days –the corticosteroid dose is too low, and 2. attack recurs >1 week –new episode.”
  • Any of the following should exclude PFAPA: “neutropenia, cough, coryza, severe abdominal pain, significant diarrhea, rash, arthritis, or neurologic abnormalities; elevated acute phase reactants between attacks”

Differential diagnosis and characteristics are reviewed in Figure 5, with emphasis on mevalonate kinase deficiency, FMF, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).

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Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

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Hepatitis C Reactivation with Chemotherapy

There are a lot of reports describing the potential of adverse outcomes due to hepatitis B reactivation with chemotherapy as well as with treatment of hepatitis C; in addition, there are recommendations to prevent this occurrence (see below). With hepatitis C virus (HCV), the issue of reactivation has not garnered the same type of concern.  A recent study (HA Torres et al. Hepatology 2018; 67: 36-47) indicates that HCV can reactivate with chemotherapy, though this may not result in adverse outcomes. The authors prospectively followed HCV-infected patients receiving cancer therapy from 2012-16.  Reactivation was defined as HCV RNA increase >1 log over baseline and hepatic flare as an increase in ALT >3 times ULN.

Key finding:

  • “Reactivation occurred in 23 (23%)…No patient with reactivation experienced liver failure or liver-related death within 36 weeks after initiation of cancer treatment…most had an unremarkable clinical course.”

Related articleM Persico et al. Hepatology 2018; 67: 48-55.  In the Persico study, the authors examined the association of HCV with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In this observational study, all patients underwent antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and chemotherapy.  Compared to a historical control group, the antiviral treatment group had similar overall survival but a significantly higher disease-free survival after 52 weeks.  Thus, the authors note that antiviral treatment combined with chemotherapy, “was shown to be safe and effective in influencing remission of aggressive lymphomas in HCV patients.”

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Preterm Infants with Increased Infections Following Acid Suppression Therapy

A recent study (P Manzoni et al. J Pediatr 2018; 193: 62-7) provide more data on the detrimental effects of gastric acid inhibitors (eg. proton pump inhibitors, histamine-2 receptor antagonists).  This study was a secondary analysis using prospectively collected data from 235 preterm very low birth weight infants. Key findings:

  • “After multivariate analysis, exposure to inhibitors of gastric acidity remained significantly and independently associated with LOS [late-onset sepsis] (OR 1.03); each day of inhibitors of gastric acidity exposure conferred an additional 3.7% odds of developing LOS.”
  • Acid suppression therapy was associated with gram-negative (P<.001) and fungal pathogens (P=.001)
  • The study showed an association between acid blockers and with necrotizing enterocolitis, which was mitigated in those who received bovine lactoferrin

My take (borrowed, in part, from authors): This data “confirm, strengthen, and expand on previous reports describing an association between inhibitors of gastric acidity and infections.”  Thus, the risks of these medications is likely greater than the benefits in the majority of preterm infants.

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Briefly Noted: Arsenic Levels with GFD, Cellphones, and Enuresis Outcomes

This post has a couple interesting items:

  1. Arsenic levels were not increased in individuals with celiac disease who were consuming a gluten-free diet
  2. Cellphones: There are good reasons for physicians to avoid giving out their cellphone numbers to patients
  3. Enuresis -most patients respond to bedwetting alarms

RD Watkins et al. Practical Gastroenterology; 2018; 42: 12-6.  In this retrospective review of 39 patients (with available arsenic levels), patients with celiac disease (adult & pediatric) had normal and/or undetectable arsenic levels.  The mean duration on a gluten-free diet was 2.35 years for pediatric patients and 3.31 years for adults.

33 Charts/Bryan Vartabedian: Should Physicians Give Their Cell Phone Numbers to Patients

E Apos et al. J Pediatr 2018; 193: 211-6.  This study showed that enuresis treatment with a bedwetting alarm system was effective in 76% of patients (n=2861) and that mean treatment time to achieve dryness was 62 days. The most frequent age group was 6 years to 10 years of age.

 

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NY Times: A Doctor’s Guide to A Good Appointment

NY Times: A Doctor’s Guide to A Good Appointment

An excerpt:

[Choosing a doctor], You can glance at these online ratings sites, but be sure to take them with an enormous grain of salt…I recommend looking for:

  • A doctor who takes his or her time talking with you, as opposed to making you feel like you’re at a drive-through fast-food joint. 
  • A doctor who engages his or her patients in decision-making, as opposed to simply rattling off a to-do list. 
  • A doctor who you can get in touch with on the phone or through secure email.

You should also check with your insurance company — find out which doctors are in network and conveniently located. ..

If you are looking for a specialist to do a particular procedure (like hip replacement, cataract surgery, a CT-guided biopsy or heart valve surgery), look for a physician who does lots of them…

Timing: If you can schedule yourself to be the first or second visit of the day, you’ll have a better chance at being seen at your scheduled time. Don’t plan your visit when you have to something critical right afterward. 

My take: This is a useful commentary.  It also makes recommendations on finding out how much it will cost (sometimes by calling your insurance company).  Other points I would make:

  • Bring important information with you, like current medications (name, and dose or just bring the prescription container itself), previous test results and growth information
  • Bring a [short] list of questions
  • If you have a flexible schedule, in addition to the first appointments of the day, often the first appointment after lunch has a shorter wait time, particularly for physicians who tend to run late on appointments

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Why Does Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Increase the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Ulcerative Colitis?

A recent retrospective study (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16: 68-74) compared adult patients who had ulcerative colitis (UC) with (n=23) and without primary sclerosing cholangitis (n=120) (PSC). All patients had pancolitis and were in clinical remission.

Key finding:

  • Patients with UC-PSC had more subclinical endoscopic activity (odds ratio (OR) 4.21) and histologic activity (OR 5.13) in the right colon compared with patients without PSC

It is known that the presence of PSC is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC).  A previous meta-analysis (RM Soetiknno et al. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 56: 48-54) described a OR of CRC of 4.09.

My take: This study shows that UC patients with PSC who are in clinical remission have a greater degree of endoscopic and histologic inflammation in the proximal colon compared to patients without PSC.  This increased inflammation is a likely factor in the increased risk for CRC.

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