A recent study (C AM Zar-Kessler et al. JPGN 2017; 65: 16-21) retrospectively reviewed a single center’s 8 year experience (2005-2013) using antidepressant medications to treat nonorganic abdominal pain. Of 531 cases, 192 initiated treatment with either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
- 63 of 84 (75%) of SSRI-treated patients improved; 56 of 92 (61%) of TCA-treated patients improved. The higher response rate to SSRIs persisted after control for psychiatric factors.
- A much higher percentage of SSRI-treated patients, compared to TCA-treated patients, had anxiety (49% vs 22%); an additional 15% and 5%, respectively, had combined anxiety/depression.
- The most common SSRI in this study was citalopram with median dose of 10 mg (range 5-60 mg).
- The most common TCA in this study was nortriptyline with median dose of 20 mg (range 10-50).
- Similar numbers of patients in each group had adverse effects, include 21 (25%) of SSRI-treated patients and 20 (22%) of TCA-treated patients. 14% of SRRI-treated patients discontinue medication due to adverse effects, compared with 17% of TCA-treated patients.
- Mood disturbances were higher in this study among TCA-treated patients: 14% compared with 6% of SSRI-treated patients
- TCAs were prescribed by gastroenterologists in 88% of cases; with SSRIs, only 39% of prescriptions were from gastroenterologists.
In the discussion, the authors note that “all patients who experienced GI adverse effect were prescribed medications that would worsen their underlying bowel complaint…these issues may have been mitigated if more attention was paid” to this. “Specifically, TCAs should be used cautiously in those with constipation, whereas SSRIs should be avoided in those with diarrhea.”
My take: This study shows that both classes of antidepressants were associated with improvement. The conclusions about effectiveness are limited as this is a retrospective study and could not control/evaluate many variables. That being said, particularly if there is coexisting anxiety, as was frequent in this study population, a SSRI may be more effective.
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- Brave New World: Psychotropics for Functional GI Disorders
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- A 6-Year Study of Amitriptyline, Escitalopram, and Functional Dyspepsia | gutsandgrowth
- Image Only: Living with Irritable Bowel Syndrome | gutsandgrowth
- Brain-Gut Axis in 2017 | gutsandgrowth
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- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Abdominal Pain …
- Pain changes brain | gutsandgrowth
- Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome | gutsandgrowth
Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.