#NASPGHAN17 IBD Treat to Target and Tight Control

More information from this year’s annual NASPGHAN meeting.

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized these presentations. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

IBD Treat to Target: Treat the Patient or Treat the Disease

Robert Baldassano  Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

I missed the first few minutes of this presentation, even though I had highlighted this as one of my top priorities.  So, if anyone reading this post has some additional comments, they are certainly welcome.

Key points:

  • Do not rely on symptoms alone to assess patient improvement.
  • Best surrogate marker: calprotectin.  Frequent calprotectin levels can help determine objective improvement; it is much more helpful than CRP as ~25% of patients do not elevate their CRP levels
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring is important in improving outcomes. Dose optimization improves response rate and durability of infliximab response.
  • Evolving targets in ulcerative colitis.  Even histologic activity, in the absence of endoscopic activity, is associated with relapsing disease
  • Dr. Baldassano indicated that he no longer is starting patients on thiopurine therapy. There are “36 phase 3 trials underway.” Thus, many promising options for those who may burn through current treatments
  • This lecture reviewed data from the RISK study showing that early (1st 90 days w/in diagnosis) TNF therapy helps prevent penetrating disease (related post: CCFA Update 2017/RISK study)

Another presentation by Philip Minar et al (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center) shows that CD64 suppression is an early biomarker of response to infliximab therapy.

Advertisements

#NASPGHAN17 Is it time to stop using thiopurine therapy?

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized this presentation. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

Safety in Pediatric IBD Therapy: Is it time to stop using thiopurines?

Jeffrey Hyams  Connecticut Children’s Medical Center

Key points from this lecture:

  • Dr. Hyams:  “There are better options than thiopurines in 2017 due to infrequent but serious risks”
  • The DEVEVOP study showed that anti-TNF agents did NOT increase the risk of lymphoma or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).  In contrast, these risks do occur with thiopurines –this is infrequent but remains significant.
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring may obviate the need for combination/dual therapy which has been shown to improve response rates to anti-TNF agents; methotrexate may work for combination therapy and may be safer than thiopurines
  • If a thiopurine is used as part of combination therapy, short duration (~6 months) is likely to have low risks
  • In addition to Dr. Hyams, Dr. Baldassano, in his discussion of treat to target (discussed in subsequent post), echoed the sentiment that he no longer recommends thiopurine therapy

Dr. Hyams slides list some of the relative risks of thiopurine therapy.  To understand these risks, the absolute risk is probably more helpful.

My take: This lecture did not focus on the main benefit of thiopurines which is its use in combination therapy. Many experts consider combination therapy to be the standard of care for adults with Crohn’s disease.  The advantages of combination therapy are mainly due to improved durability of anti-TNF therapy and lower antidrug antibodies.  How this benefit stacks up against the risks discussed in this lecture and whether this benefit can be supplanted by the use of therapeutic drug monitoring is uncertain.

 

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

NASPGHAN Postgraduate Course 2017 (Part 4): Therapeutic drug monitoring, Anti-TNF management, Postoperative Crohn’s disease

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized these presentations. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

Here is a link to postgraduate course syllabus: NASPGHAN PG Syllabus – 2017

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Andrew Grossman  Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

The topic of therapeutic drug monitoring, both reactive and proactive, has been discussed numerous times on this blog.  This talk provided a good review of this topic.

Key points:

  • Greatest predictor of infliximab treatment failure was a low infliximab (<0.9 mcg/mL at anytime or <2.2 mcg/mL at 14 weeks) (Castelle et al Am J Gastro 2013; 108: 962-71)
  • Low level antibodies to infliximab may be transient in ~28% and may be overcome with escalation of therapy
  • Tissue levels of infliximab (and other agents) may be inadequate despite good serum levels

What if anti-TNF fails

Maria Oliva-Hemker   Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Key points:

  • Discussed prevalence of problem with anti-TNF failures and main options: vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and surgery
  • Vedolizumab can take a while to work, particularly for Crohn’s disease
  • Limited data in pediatrics for these newer agents
  • Ustekinumab has some preliminary data indicating benefit with anti-TNF induced psoriaform rashes
  • Newer agents also likely to need therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Overall, ustekinumab and vedolizumab have good safety profiles at this point

 

Prevention of postoperative Crohn’s disease

Miguel Regueiro   University of Pittsburgh

  • Rationale for postoperative preventative treatment: high rate of recurrent disease which can be silent for several years despite progressive damage to GI tract
  • Large study (PREVENT) to compare infliximab and placebo after surgery.  Primary endpoint was clinical recurrence (was endpoint demanded by FDA) even though clinical recurrence can be a late finding.  Endoscopic recurrence rate was a secondary endpoint.

Dr. Regueiro’s approach

  • Low risk patient –repeat scope at 6 months post-op, then every 1-3 yrs if no disease and Rx with anti-TNF or immunomodulator in those with endoscopic recurrence
  • Moderate risk patient -possible use of thiopurine or use the ‘low risk’ approach
  • High risk patient-combination therapy and if doing well for several years, consider monotherapy
  • In pediatrics, the postoperative management is unclear due to difficulty with risk stratification.  If postoperative treatment is not given, consider colonoscopy 3-4 months afterwards and treat if recurrence.  Then could use calprotectin every 3 months to monitor and when >50, likely will need to be treated

PREVENT Trial Data:

 

 

 

Three Studies Show Benefit of Concomitant Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Part 1)

In the first study (J Cheng et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017; 23: 1762-73), the authors retrospectively reviewed 148 children (113 with Crohn’s disease, 35 with ulcerative colitis). 90 patients received concomitant therapy (infliximab with either a thiopurine [n=67], methotrexate [n=23]) and 58 received infliximab monotherapy. Key findings:

  • Concomitant therapy >6 months  significantly lowered the risk of secondary loss of response in Crohn’s disease (CD) (HR =0.39) compared to monotherapy.   A similar trend was noted with ulcerative colitis (UC) but did not reach statistical significance.
  • Steroid-free remission rates at 1 year were 78% for CD patients with concomitant therapy compared with 54% on monotherapy
  • Among primary nonresponders, 67% of CD patients and 75% of UC patients were receiving IFX monotherapy.
  • No differences in adverse events were evident between patients receiving monotherapy compared with concomitant therapy. One patient (receiving azathioprine) developed a follicular lymphoma; this patient was well 10 years later.

The second study (Y Qui et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 1359-72) was a systemic review of 35 studies that met the authors’ inclusion criteria. In total, 6790 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled in these studies. This study looked at multiple anit-TNF agents including infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab. Key finding:

  • Antidrug antibodies were reduced by 51% in patients receiving concomitant therapy
  • Conclusion from authors: “concomitant use of immunomodulators should be considered in patients treated with anti-TNF treatment.”

My take: Overall, for most pediatric patients with CD, to date, concomitant therapy has been the most effective treatment.  More prospective studies are needed to determine more conclusively the benefit and optimal duration/timing of combined therapy, particularly with the more frequent use of therapeutic drug monitoring.  Also, as will be noted in future posts from annual meeting, thiopurine use is declining.

More on this topic tomorrow.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Infliximab Infusions Without Premedication

Briefly noted:

A recent study (SQ Hutsell, M Wu, KT Park. JPGN 2017; 65: 430-31) examined two practice changes with regard to infliximab (IFX) infusions:

  1. 1-hour infusions
  2. Omission of premedications

The authors reviewed ~900 IFX infusions; though, only 111 infusions were administered without premedications.  These two changes resulted in a 51% decrease in infusion hours, despite a 9% increase in total number infusions. No increase in adverse reactions was identified.

The authors state that these changes improve patient experience, shorten monitoring time, and reduce costs.

 

Breastfeeding: Protection from Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Xu L, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: breastfeeding and the risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitisAliment Pharmacol Ther2017;46:780-789.

https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.14291Thanks to Mike Hart for this reference.

From abstract:

Results

A total of 35 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 7536 individuals with CD, 7353 with UC and 330 222 controls. Ever being breastfed was associated with a lower risk of CD (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85) and UC (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91). While this inverse association was observed in all ethnicity groups, the magnitude of protection was significantly greater among Asians (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.48) compared to Caucasians (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93; P = .0001) in CD. Breastfeeding duration showed a dose-dependent association, with strongest decrease in risk when breastfed for at least 12 months for CD (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.50) and UC (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10-0.43) as compared to 3 or 6 months.

From associated editorial by David Rakel:

This meta-analysis of 35 studies shows that there is a dose–response protective effect of the duration of breastfeeding on inflammatory bowel disease. The association shows as much as an 80% reduction in risk for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis for breastfeeding more than 12 months.

Breast Feeding Graph

Inflammatory bowel disease arises from a complex set of interactions related to genetic susceptibility, environmental exposures, and a dysregulated immune response to dysbiotic intestinal microbiota, according to the study authors. These data will give us one more reason to encourage breastfeeding, ideally for a year or more.

Related blog post: Nutrition Week (Day 7) Connecting Diet and Epidemiology in IBD

 

 

Top Anti-TNF for Ulcerative Colitis

A recent retrospective cohort study (S Singh et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 1218-25) compared infliximab and adalimumab in a nationwide Danish cohort of adults with ulcerative colitis (UC) from 2005-2014. The authors used propensity score and selected 171 patients who received infliximab (IFX) from a total of 1580 and 104 patients who received adalimumab (ADA) among a total of 139.

Key findings:

  • Patients who received ADA had higher hospitalization rates (HR 1.84) and a trend toward higher UC-related hospitalization (HR 1.71, CI 0.95-3.07) compared to IFX
  • Risk of abdominal surgery was not significantly higher in ADA patients (HR 1.35) compared to IFX
  • Serious infections were higher in ADA group, HR of 5.11 of needing hospitalization due to infections

There have been no randomized clinical trials  to determine if a specific anti-TNF agent is superior to another. In an associated editorial (MT Osterman, GR Lichtenstein, 1197-99), the authors note that while we don’t know which agent is superior, by comparing similar trials (ACT 1 & 2 for IFX and ULTRA 1 & 2 for ADA), “raw week 8 induction rates of clinical remission, clinical response, and mucosal healing are approximately 16%, 18%, and 19%, respectively, higher for infliximab”..”less dramatic differences favoring infliximab (approximately 9%, 13%, and 15%, respectively) are seen during maintenance at 1 year.”

My take: Due to the lack of randomized head-to-head studies, we do not know with certainty which anti-TNF is best for UC.  However, the data we have from retrospective cohort studies and from using raw data from prospective studies suggests that infliximab is effective in more patients.

Related blog posts:

University of Virginia Rotunda Pctures

 

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.