A recent retrospective study (MA Sheiko et al JPGN 2017; 65: 80-5) examines the issue of azathioprine (AZA) metabolites and outcomes in pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).
- 66 children
- Mean age of diagnosis 9.6 years
- Mean follow-up 2.9 years
- Study period 2002-2013
- 79% achieved biochemical remission (defined as ALT ≤50 U/L); mean time was 6.2 months
- 6% required liver transplantation
- 18% were weaned off immunosuppression and remained in remission
- 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels ranging from 50 to 250 (pmol/8 x 10 to 8th red blood cell count) were associated with biochemical remission
“Our study suggests that AZA dosing of approximately 1.2 to 1.6 mg/kg/day will achieve 6-TGN levels of 50 to 250 pmol, which is sufficient to maintain biochemical remission in the majority of patients.“
This is significantly lower than dosing recommended for inflammatory bowel disease (recommended levels 250-450). The associated editorial (pg 2-3, N Kerkar) cautions that while “lower levels are sufficient for maintaining biochemical remission…higher levels, similar to that used in IBD, are required for inducing remission.”
My take: Lower doses of azathioprine are likely to maintain biochemical remission and cause fewer side effects. Metabolite levels can be helpful to assure reasonable levels of 6-TGN and to assure medication adherence.
Related blog entries:
Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.
Shem Creek, SC
To improve long-term outcomes and response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, many experts advocate the use of combination therapy (thiopurine with anti-tumor necrosis factor). Thiopurine cotherapy resulted in higher response rates in pivotal studies (eg. SONIC, UC Success), likely due to lower rates of antidrug antibody (ADA) and higher serum levels of biologic agents (e.g. infliximab). To achieve these advantages, it is not clear whether a lower dose of a thiopurine may be similarly effective as a higher dose. If a lower dose could result in a similar effect, it would likely result in fewer adverse effects.
A recent study (Yarur AJ, et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1118-24) provide some data to address the issue of optimal dosing of thiopurines. The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 72 patients receiving infliximab (IFX) and a thiopurine.
- The thiopurine metabolite 6-thioguanine (6-TG) that “best predicted a higher level of infliximab was 125 pmol/8 x 10 to the 8th RBCs.”
- Only 8 patients (11%) had detectable antibodies to infliximab (ATI)
- Patients with 6-TG <125 were more likely to have ATI (OR 1.3)
- Higher 6-TG levels did not confer additional benefit
This study had many limitations including the small number of patients and the cross sectional design. In addition, the patients may not be representative of typical patients; more than 50% were in endoscopic remission. A randomized controlled trial with larger number of patients is needed for a more definitive answer.
Take-home message: (from authors); “6-TGN metabolite levels rather than weight-based dosing may assist clinicians in optimizing treatment when using thiopurines in combination with IFX…lower target 6-TGN levels (125-176 pmol/8 x 10 to the 8th RBCs) may be adequate to maximize IFX levels and reduce immunogenicity while potentially minimizing toxicity.”
Ananthakrishnan AN et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1197-1200. In this prospective study with 1659 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 946 patients with ulcerative colitis, the authors found wide variation among the 7 participating academic centers, particularly with regard to CD treatment. Comparing the site with the lowest usage to the highest usage, for CD:
- Oral mesalamine 13% vs. 46%
- Immunomodulator use 16% vs. 56%
- Anti-TNF use 31% vs 60%
- Combination therapy 8% vs 32%
- Immunomodulator-naive anti-TNF use 10% vs. 17%
- Surgery 32% vs 55%
Related blog posts: