Liver Articles -Spring 2018

C Sikavi et al. Hepatology 2018; 67: 847-57.  This systematic review highlights that the combination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HIV infection is no longer a difficult-to-treat population with the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). There are similar sustained virologic responses (SVRs) among those with and those without HIV.  In clinical trials, patients with combined HCV-HIV had SVRs of 93.5-98% with DAA treatment; “real-world cohorts” had SVRs of 90.9%-98%.

MS Middleton et al. Hepatology 2018; 67: 858-72.  Using data from the prospective CyNCh trial (cysteamine for NAFLD), the authors examined MRIs for diagnostic accuracy among 169 enrolled children.  In this group, 110 (65%) and 83 (49%) had MRI and liver biopsy at baseline. MRI-PDFF (proton density fat fraction) was able to classify grade 1 steatosis from grade 2-3 steatosis with area under receiving operator characteristic curve of 0.87.  Thus, this study shows MRI-estimated PDFF has high diagnostic accuracy.

G Mieli-Vergani et al. JPGN 2018; 66: 345-60.  Position paper for Pediatric Autoimmune Liver Disease (AIH, ASC, de novo AIH after liver transplantation). This is a very useful review.  A couple of pointers from the authors:

  • “Present experience with budesonide as the first-line treatment is limited and does not appear to offer clear clinical advantage over the standard treatment”[prednisone]
  • Fecal calprotectin should be obtained to evaluate for IBD in patients with autoimmune liver disease, “even in asymptomatic children.”

JM Cotter et al. JPGN 2018; 66: 227-33. This retrospective study with 39 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) showed a lack of correlation between liver tests and fibrosis at presentation.  Average age of PSC diagnosis was 11.2 years, 74% had inflammatory bowel disease and 51% had autoimmune hepatitis. Related blog post: Big Pediatric PSC Study (with 781 children)

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Autoimmune Hepatitis Associated with Anti-TNF Therapy

A recent study (A Ricciuto et al. J Pediatr 2018; 194: 128-35) identified an index case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and reviewed liver biochemistries in a cohort of 659 children.

Key findings:

  • In the index case, features of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) on liver biopsy were noted 23 weeks after starting infliximab.   These findings resolved entirely within 4 months after withdrawal of infliximab
  • Overall, 7.7% of cohort had elevations of ALT while receiving anti-TNF therapy.  Most were mild and attributable to other causes than drug toxicity. No other cases of AIH were identified.

The authors recommend a careful investigation in those with elevations >2-3 times ULN which persists >3 months. Livertox (NIH) website notes the following for infliximab:

“The liver injury caused by infliximab is usually mild and rapidly reversed once therapy is stopped.  However, fatal instances of HBV reactivation and induction of autoimmune hepatitis due to infliximab have been reported, and regular monitoring of patients early during the course of infliximab is recommended.”

My take: Serious liver injury related to anti-TNF therapy is rare. A great place to understand the spectrum of liver problems potentially related to infliximab is the livertox website:

Related blog entries:

AIH:

Views from inside Hoover Dam, including Mike O’Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge

Autoimmune Liver Disease in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

A recent retrospective study (S Jitaruch et al. J Pediatr 2017; 189: 79-85) documents the important association of autoimmune liver disease in children with sickle cell disease (SCD).  I have seen  children with hemoglobinopathy and autoimmune hepatitis.

Key findings:

  • 13 of 77 patients with SCD were diagnosed with autoimmune liver disease
  • 2 patients presented with acute liver failure
  • 6 patients had cholangiopathy on cholangiogram “suggesting autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis”
  • At median follow-up of 3.8 years, 5 achieved full remission, 4 partial remission, 1 had liver transplant, 1 died of subdural hemorrhage (prior to liver disease treatment), and 2 were lost to followup

My take: this report is a good reminder that though there are a good number of reasons for abnormal liver blood tests in children with SCD, it is important to follow these children closely and to obtain serology (including ANCA) in those with persistent elevations.

Related blog post: Blood is not enough

South Kaibab Trail at the basin of the Grand Canyon (Colorado River)

 

Liver Articles: Short Takes

DBE van Wessel et al. JPGN 2017; 65: 370-74.  This retrospective study showed an increase in biliary atresia incidence in preterm infants compared with full-term: 1.06 per 10,000 compared with 0.52/10,000. In addition, 4-year transplant-free survival rates were significantly worse at 21%, whereas 4-year survival rates was 61%. Clearance of jaundice (with Kasai) was achieved in only 23%.

Related post: Biliary Atresia More Common in Preterm Infants

ES Björnsson et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 1635-36. This study examined response to steroids in 18 patients with drug-induced autoimmune hepatitisKey findings: 14 patients had elevated antinuclear antibodies & there were none with elevated smooth muscle antibodies. Infliximab was most frequent agent (n=11) and nitrofurantoin was other frequent agent (n=3).  Overall, 40% improved after discontinuation of medication, the remainder had prompt responses to corticosteroids.  Relapse did not occur when corticosteroids were discontinued.  Among the infliximab group, there was no evidence of liver injury after transitioning to alternative tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor.

M Balwani et al. Hepatology 2017; 66: 1314-22. Acute Hepatic Porphyrias -Review. Current recommendations include gene sequencing to confirm all biochemical cases. Biochemical tests are spot urine testing of porphobilinogen (PBG), 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and porphyrins. A normal urine PBG in symptomatic patients “excludes the three most common acute hepatic porphyrias.”  For those with abnormal studies, this reference is a handy.

S Wirth et al. Hepatology 2017; 66: 1102-10.  This study examined the effectiveness of sofosbuvir and weigh-based ribavirin dosing in 12-17 year olds with genotype 2 & 3 Hepatitis C infection.  Duration of treatment was 12 weeks for genotype 2 and 24 weeks for type 3.  Overall, SVR12 was achieved in 51 of 52 (98%); one patient with genotype 3 did not achieve SVR12.

Related post: New HCV Treatment Effective in Adolescents (Genotype 1 study)

F Kanwal et al. Gastroenterol 2017; 153: 996-1005. This study, a retrospective cohort of 22,500 VA patients treated for hepatitis C infection, showed that direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) lowered, but did not eliminate, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the 87% who achieved an SVR, the adjusted hazard ratio for HCC was 0.28.  This was true as well as among patients with cirrhosis.. Hazard ratio for those with compensated cirrhosis was 0.32 compared with 0.18 among those without cirrhosis.

Autoimmune Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Briefly noted:

A Tansel et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 1207-17.  This systematic review and meta-analysis identified 25 studies and 6528 patients examining the relationship between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) .  In these studies the median followup was 8.0 years.  Key findings:

  • The pooled incidence of HCC was 3.06 per 1000 patient-years
  • 92 of 93 patients who had HCC had evidence of cirrhosis before or at the time of their diagnosis

My take: This study demonstrates that AIH patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk for HCC.  In patients with AIH who do not have cirrhosis, there does not appear to be a significant risk of HCC.

Also: Link for Online Resource for Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (Canadian Sponsored site). This site has content for patients and for practitioners, including a useful video.

 

Related blog posts:

6-Thioguanine Levels in Autoimmune Hepatitis

A recent retrospective study (MA Sheiko et al JPGN 2017; 65: 80-5) examines the issue of azathioprine (AZA) metabolites and outcomes in pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).

Study characteristics:

  • 66 children
  • Mean age of diagnosis 9.6 years
  • Mean follow-up 2.9 years
  • Study period 2002-2013

Key findings:

  • 79% achieved biochemical remission (defined as ALT ≤50 U/L); mean time was 6.2 months
  • 6% required liver transplantation
  • 18% were weaned off immunosuppression and remained in remission
  • 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels ranging from 50 to 250 (pmol/8 x 10 to 8th red blood cell count) were associated with biochemical remission

Our study suggests that AZA dosing of approximately 1.2 to 1.6 mg/kg/day will achieve 6-TGN levels of 50 to 250 pmol, which is sufficient to maintain biochemical remission in the majority of patients.

This is significantly lower than dosing recommended for inflammatory bowel disease (recommended levels 250-450). The associated editorial (pg 2-3, N Kerkar) cautions that while “lower levels are sufficient for maintaining biochemical remission…higher levels, similar to that used in IBD, are required for inducing remission.”

My take: Lower doses of azathioprine are likely to maintain biochemical remission and cause fewer side effects.  Metabolite levels can be helpful to assure reasonable levels of 6-TGN and to assure medication adherence.

Related blog entries:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Shem Creek, SC

Slim Pickings: Data for 2nd-Line Autoimmune Hepatitis Pediatric Therapy

A recent study (AN Zizzo et al. JPGN 2017; 65: 6-15) performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) studies.

The most remarkable finding was that there were only 76 patients from 15 qualifying studies.

Other findings:

  • Response to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with 34 patients was 36% (according to abstract) at 6 months  (discrepancy in article –results state 38% response)
  • Response to cyclosporine with 15 patients was 83% (discrepancy in article –results state 86% response)
  • Response to tacrolimus with 4 patients was 50%
  • Adverse effects were very common, particularly with cyclosporine (64% noted at least 1 adverse effect)

The article has an associated editorial (N Kerkar, pg 2-3).  “The adverse event profile of cyclosporine with gingival hyperplasia, hypertrichosis, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity made it challenging for long-term use in children.”  Besides the small number of patients, “the studies that were included were largely “observational”‘ which limits their findings as well.  The study authors recommend MMF as the preferred option for 2nd-line therapy.

My take: Fortunately, most patients with autoimmune hepatitis respond to first line therapy with azathioprine/steroids.  It is unclear what is the optimal 2nd-line treatment for refractory patients.

Related blog entries:

Egret, Shem Creek